dysfunctions prevent or reduce an
individual's enjoyment of normal
sex and prevent or reduce the normal
physiological changes brought on
normally by sexual arousal.1 These
dysfunctions can be classified by
the phase of the sexual cycle in
which they occur. It is important
to keep in mind that the diagnosis
of sexual dysfunction is made only
when the disability persists.1 Any
of them could occur occasionally
or be caused by a temporary factor
such as fatigue, sickness, alcohol,
are two types of dysfunctions that
can occur during the desire phase.
One is hypoactive desire, which
is basically a disinterest in sexual
activity. It results in a complete
or almost complete lack of desire
to have any type of sexual relation.
This can often result in the participation
in intercourse as a simple marital
second type is an aversion to sex.
This is different from simple hypoactive
sexual desire in that sexual activity
actually repulses the person or
makes them unusually apprehensive.
This is most often the result of
a traumatic sexual experience, such
as molestation as a child or rape.
dysfunction is the inability of
males to attain or sustain erection
long enough for coitus. The inability
of females to become sexually aroused
is sexual arousal disorder.
males are unable to control ejaculation
so that it occurs before satisfying
sexual relations can take place
with the partner, it is known as
premature ejaculation. Ejaculatory
incompetence is the lack or delay
of reaching orgasm in males. The
female version of this is inhibited
female orgasm, the lack or delay
of reaching orgasm in females.
Sexual Pain Disorders
are two sexual pain disorders. Dyspareunia
is when pain occurs during intercourse.
This is predominantly a female complaint,
but it does occur in males occasionally.
Vaginismus is a female disorder
in which involuntary spasmodic muscle
contractions occur at the entrance
to the vagina when an attempt is
made to insert the penis. If intercourse
is attempted despite these contractions,
a painful sexual experience results.
are sexual behaviors in which unusual
objects or scenarios are necessary
to achieve sexual excitement.1 Eight
paraphilias are recognized which
are grouped into 3 broad catergories.
for Nonhuman Objects
are two types of preferences for
nonhuman objects: fetishism and
A fetish exists when a person is
sexually aroused by a nonliving
object. It can manifest in two ways,
one more extreme than the other.
One form associates coitus with
some object (most frequently women's
panties or other undergarments1
). It is relatively harmless if
the action is taken playfully and
is acceptable to the person's partner.
Focus on certain parts of the body
(feet, hair, ears, etc) aside from
those part of the pleasurable foreplay,
can become fetishistic in its hold
on the individual.
more extreme form of fetishism is
when a nonliving object completely
substitutes for a human partner,
such as underwear, boots, and shoes
or such textured objects as velvet
or silk. Here, orgasm is achieved
when the person is alone, fondling
This paraphilia exists when the
person achieves sexual excitement
by cross-dressing. This is very
rarely found in females so the male
side of this paraphilia will be
used as the example.
different purposes seem to be associated
with this act in different individuals.
In one aspect the person seeks to
intensify sexual excitement in intercourse
with a partner by only partially dressing
as a woman. In the other form, the
male moves about in full female
regailia, which suggests some type
of gender identity problem but not
Preferences for Situations
The term sadist is derived from
the reported violent sexual exploits
of the Marquis de Sade. "Sadist"
is applied to those who derive sexual
excitement from the pain of others.
The term masochist was derived from
the writing of Leopold von Sacher-Masoch
whose characters sought out women
who would beat them. "Masochist"
is applied to those who derive sexual
excitement through their own pain.
Hence, sadists and masochists go
hand in hand, one depending on the
need of the other. The danger of
these needs is that each may need
succesively more brutal treatment
to satisfy their sexual needs.
Preference for Nonconsenting Partners
three types of this catergory of
paraphilia are exhibitionism, voyeurism,
and pedophilia. All three are considered
crimes in this country and are almost
entirely male crimes.
Exhibitionism is the exposure of
one's genitals in a public place.
It is the most prominent sexual
offense leading to arrest and makes
up one third of all sexual crimes.1
From the psychological point of
view, there are three characteristic
features of the exhibition. First,
it is always performed for unknown
women; second, it always takes place
where sexual intercourse is impossible,
for example in a crowded shopping
mall; and third, it must be shocking
for the unknown woman or it seems
to lose its power to produce sexual
arousal in the individual. Exhibitionists
are not assaultive and are considered
more of a nuisance than an actual
Looking at sexually arousing pictures
or situations is a relatively common,
apparently normal activity. The
difference between this and voyeurism
is that in normal watching, the
viewing is a prelude to normal sexual
activity. In the voyeur or "Peeping
Tom" the experience replaces
normal sexual activity. Nevertheless,
voyeurism may exist in a person
who also engages in normal heterosexual
Pedophilia is the act of deriving
sexual excitement through the physical
contact of children. This paraphilia
is radically different from exhibitionism
and voyeurism in its severely damaging
impact on the nonconsenting partner,
a child. Ordinarily, the pedophiliac
is someone who has ready access
to the child. The child or parent
would have no reason to suspect
that the individual has a pedophilic
gender identity disorder exists
when a person, male or female, experiences
confusion, vagueness or conflict
in their feelings about their own
sexual identity. 1 There is a struggle
between the individual's anatomical
sex gender and subjective feelings
about choosing a masculine or feminine
style of life.
can distinguish the difference between
males and females by the age of
two and by their fourth birthday
can recognize the different roles
that each sex plays in society.
By the age of fifteen or so a person
can relate to what arouses sexual
feelings in themselves. Those with
a gender identity disorder may have
a problem with one or all of these
aspects of identity.
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